程度副詞

程度副詞透露動詞、形容詞或另一個副詞的強度或程度;通常放在其修飾的字詞前,不過底下還會再探討幾個例外情況。

程度副詞 修飾 舉例
extremely 形容詞 The water was extremely cold.
quite 形容詞 The movie is quite interesting.
just 動詞 He was just leaving.
almost 動詞 She has almost finished.
very 副詞 She is running very fast.
too 副詞 You are walking too slowly.
enough 副詞 You are running fast enough.

enough 的用法

enough 可用作副詞,也可以用作限定詞。

用作副詞的 enough

有「某程度必要性」之意的副詞 enough, 會放在其修飾的形容詞或副詞後,而不是像其他副詞一樣放在前面。enough 可以用在肯定句和否定句。

  • Is your coffee hot enough?
  • This box isn't big enough.
  • He didn't work hard enough.
  • I got here early enough.

enough 後面通常會接 to + 不定詞

舉例
  • He didn't work hard enough to pass the exam.
  • Is your coffee hot enough to drink?
  • She's not old enough to get married.
  • I got here early enough to sign up.

enough 後面也可以接 for + 某人 for + 某物

舉例
  • The dress was big enough for me.
  • She's not experienced enough for this job.
  • Is the coffee hot enough for you?
  • He didn't work hard enough for a promotion.
用作限定詞的 enough

有「足夠」之意的限定詞 enough 會放在其修飾的名詞前面;與可數名詞複數或不可數名詞連用。

舉例
  • We have enough bread.
  • You have enough children.
  • They don't have enough food.
  • I don't have enough apples.

too 的用法

too 向來都是個副詞,但它具有兩個截然不同的意思,每個都有特定的用法。

意指「也」的 too

有「也」之意的副詞 too 會放在其修飾的片語後。

舉例
  • I would like to go swimming too, if you will let me come.
  • Can I go to the zoo too?
  • Is this gift for me too?
  • I'm not going to clean your room too!
意指「過於」的 too

有「過於」之意的副詞 too,會放在其修飾的形容詞或副詞前。too 可以用在肯定句和否定句。

舉例
  • This coffee is too hot.
  • He works too hard.
  • Isn't she too young?
  • I am not too short!

too 後面經常接 to + 不定詞

舉例
  • The coffee was too hot to drink.
  • You're too young to have grandchildren!
  • I am not too tired to go out tonight.
  • Don't you work too hard to have any free time?

too 後面也可以接 for + 某人 for + 某物

舉例
  • The coffee was too hot for me.
  • The dress was too small for her.
  • He's not too old for this job.
  • Sally's not too slow for our team.

very 的用法

very 會放在副詞或形容詞之前,用來加強意思。

舉例
  • The girl was very beautiful.
  • The house is very expensive.
  • He worked very quickly.
  • She runs very fast.

如果想表達形容詞或副詞的相反意思,有幾種方式:可以在動詞加上 not,若要委婉、更有禮貌的說法則是用 not very,或者乾脆用反義的形容詞或副詞來表達。這幾種說法都可以表達否定或反義,但意思上不盡相同。

舉例
原始說法 以 not 表達相反的意思 以 not very 表達相反的意思 以反義字表達相反的意思
The girl was beautiful. The girl was not beautiful. The girl was not very beautiful. The girl was ugly.
He worked quickly. He did not work quickly. He did not work very quickly. He worked slowly.
very 和 too 在意思上的不同

too 和 very 之間的意思有很大的不同;very 表達的是事實,也是個人可接受的範圍;而 too 則是透露某件事有問題,超出個人可接受的範圍。

舉例
  • He speaks very quickly.
  • He speaks too quickly for me to understand.
  • It is very hot outside.
  • It is too hot outside to go for a walk.
類似 very 的其他副詞

有些常見的副詞跟 very 的用法類似,用來加強形容詞和副詞的程度。

表達非常強烈的感覺 表達強烈的感覺 表達有點含糊的感覺
extremely, terribly, amazingly, wonderfully, insanely especially, particularly, uncommonly, unusually, remarkably, quite pretty, rather, fairly, not especially, not particularly
The movie was amazingly interesting. The movie was particularly interesting. The movie was fairly interesting.
She sang wonderfully well. She sang unusually well. She sang pretty well.
The lecture was terribly boring. The lecture was quite boring. The lecture was rather boring.

帶有否定副詞的倒裝句

一般主詞都會在動詞之前,但有些否定副詞放在句首時,就會造成倒裝。在此情況下字序會相反,且動詞會出現在主詞前。倒裝句一般用在書面上,口語上不太會這樣用。

副詞 一般字序 倒裝
Never I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.
Rarely She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
Not only She did not only the cooking but the cleaning as well. Not only did she do the cooking, but the cleaning as well.
Scarcely I scarcely closed the door before he started talking. Scarcely did I close the door before he started talking.
Seldom We seldom cross the river after sunset. Seldom do we cross the river sunset.