時間副詞

時間副詞會透露某個動作發生的時間、持續多久、頻率多寡。

透露何時發生的副詞

這類時間副詞一般會放在句尾。

舉例
  • Goldilocks went to the Bears' house yesterday.
  • I'm going to tidy my room tomorrow.
  • I saw Sally today.
  • I will call you later.
  • I have to leave now.
  • I saw that movie last year.

把這類時間副詞放在句尾,屬於中立的作法;但這些副詞也可以放在其他位置,只是強調的事情會不太一樣。如果把這類副詞放在句首,則是強調時間的要素。在正式書寫上,有些時間副詞也可以放在主要動詞前,而其他時間副詞則不能放在這個位置。

舉例
  • Later Goldilocks ate some porridge.(時間很重要)
  • Goldilocks later ate some porridge.(這種寫法較正式,類似警察做的筆錄)
  • Goldilocks ate some porridge later.(中立的寫法,沒有特別強調哪個字)

透露持續時間的副詞

這類副詞通常會放在句尾。

舉例
  • She stayed in the Bears' house all day.
  • My mother lived in France for a year.
  • I have been going to this school since 1996.

在這類副詞片語中,for 的後面一律接一段時間;而 since 後面一律接一個時間點。

舉例
  • I stayed in Switzerland for three days.
  • I am going on vacation for a week.
  • I have been riding horses for several years.
  • The French monarchy lasted for several centuries.
  • I have not seen you since Monday.
  • Jim has been working here since 1997.
  • There has not been a more exciting discovery since last century.

透露頻率多寡的副詞

這類副詞透露某個動作發生的頻率,一般放在主要動詞前,或是助動詞(如 be、have、may、must 等)之後。唯一的例外,就是當主要動詞為 Be 動詞時,副詞才會接在主要動詞後。

舉例
  • I often eat vegetarian food.
  • He never drinks milk.
  • You must always fasten your seat belt.
  • I am seldom late.
  • He rarely lies.

這類副詞有些可放在句首或句尾,有些則不行。當這些副詞被放在句首或句尾時,副詞的意思就會顯得更強烈。

可用於兩種位置的副詞 意思顯得較強烈的位置 意思顯得較弱的位置
frequently I visit France frequently. I frequently visit France.
generally Generally, I don't like spicy foods. I generally don't like spicy foods.
normally I listen to classical music normally. I normally listen to classical music.
occasionally I go to the opera occasionally. I occasionally go to the opera.
often Often, I jog in the morning. I often jog in the morning.
regularly I come to this museum regularly. I regularly come to this museum.
sometimes I get up very early sometimes. I sometimes get up very early.
usually I enjoy being with children usually. I usually enjoy being with children.

有些頻率副詞則表達動作發生的確切次數,這些副詞通常會放在句尾。

舉例
  • This magazine is published monthly.
  • He visits his mother once a week.
  • I work five days a week.
  • I saw the movie seven times.

yet 的用法

yet 用在問句或否定句,放在 not 的後面,則表示某件事尚未發生;而放在問句的句尾,則是詢問某件可能還沒發生、卻期待發生的事。

舉例
  • Have you finished your work yet? (= 單純詢問資訊)
  • No, not yet. (= 單純否定答句)
  • They haven't met him yet. (= 單純否定陳述句)
  • Haven't you finished yet? (= 表達驚訝)

still 的用法

still 表達的是持續性。在肯定句中,still 會放在主要動詞前,或是 be、have、might、will 等助動詞後。但如果主要動詞是 Be 動詞,則將 still 放在助動詞後。在問句中,still 就要放在主要動詞前。

舉例
  • She is still waiting for you.
  • Jim might still want some.
  • Do you still work for the BBC?
  • Are you still here?
  • I am still hungry.

時間副詞的順序

如果要在一個句子中使用多個時間副詞,就使用此順序:

1: 多久 2: 頻率 3: 何時

舉例
  • 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day
  • 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
  • 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
  • 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.