指示詞

指示詞表達某物與說話者之間的關係,可以表達實際上或心理上的遠或近。當談到某些事物時,近指地點指示詞(如 here)常用來指目前的事物,而遠指地點指示詞(如 there)常用來指過去的事物。

  距離說話者近 距離說話者遠
副詞 Here There
與單數名詞和不可數名詞連用的指示詞 This That
與複數可數名詞連用的指示詞 These Those

指示詞的用法

舉例
距離說話者近 距離說話者遠
Is this John's house? Is that John's house over there?
This is a nice surprise! That must have been a nice surprise for you.
These apples are mine. Those apples are yours.
What are you up to these days? Those days are long gone.
This time I won't be late. We really surprised you that time.
This sugar is for my crepes. You can use that sugar for your cake.

在句中的位置

指示詞可以放在名詞前,或是放在修飾名詞的形容詞前。

舉例
  • This blue car needs to be washed next.
  • Those people were here first.
  • That metal rod should work.
  • These oranges are delicious.

如果在語境中已經確知名詞為何,就可以直接在數字前加指示詞。

舉例
  • I'd like to try on that one.
  • This one is broken.
  • I'll take these three.
  • Those two are not as pretty as these two.

如果已經確知指示詞修飾的名詞為何,則可以單獨使用,省略名詞。

舉例
  • I'll never forget this.
  • That has nothing to do with me.
  • I didn't ask for these.
  • Those aren't mine.