混合條件句

條件句的兩個子句指的是不同時間,是有可能的;而在這種情況下,主要子句(表示結果)為「混合條件句」 。混合條件句有兩種:

過去的條件/情況對現在的結果

型態

在這類混合條件句,if 子句的時態為過去完成式,而主要子句的時態為現在條件式。

if 子句(條件/情況) 主要子句(結果)
if + 過去完成式 現在條件式
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

就如所有條件句,子句的順序並沒有硬性規定。當您要改變子句的順序時,必須重新安排代名詞的位置,以及調整標點符號,但意思基本上是一樣的。

舉例
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn't be lost.
  • We wouldn't be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
作用

這種混合條件句論及過去的一個不真實的情況,以及該情況在現在可能會有的結果。這些句子表達的情況與過去和現在的事實都是相反的。在這類混合條件句中,if 子句的時間指的是過去,而主要子句的時間指的是現在

舉例
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license.(但我沒有努力準備,而且現在還沒有駕照)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job.(但我沒有接下那份工作,現在我也不是百萬富翁)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn't buy this jacket.(但你沒有花掉所有的錢,現在你可以買下這件夾克)

在混合條件句中,您也可以在主要子句用情態助動詞取代 would,以表達肯定程度、允諾或有關結果的建議。

舉例
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

現在或持續的情況對過去的結果

型態

在這類混合條件句中,if 子句的時態是過去簡單式,而主要子句的時態是完成條件式。

if 子句(條件/情況) 主要子句(結果)
if + 過去簡單式 完成條件式
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

就如所有條件句,子句的順序並沒有硬性規定。當您要改變子句的順序時,必須重新安排代名詞的位置,以及調整標點符號,但意思基本上是一樣的。

舉例
  • If I wasn't afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn't afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn't trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn't trust him.
  • If I wasn't in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn't in the middle of another meeting.
作用

這些混合條件句論及現在的一個不真實的情況,以及該情況在過去可能會有的結果(但只是虛設)。在這些混合條件句,if 子句的時間指的是現在或隨時,而主要子句的時間指的是過去。例如:「If I wasn't afraid of spiders」( 要是我不怕蜘蛛)與現在事實相反,事實上是「我怕蜘蛛」。而「I would have picked it up」(我早就會撿起它了)也是與過去事實相反,實際上我並沒有撿起來過。

舉例
  • If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't have travelled by boat.
  • I'd have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I'd have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn't in love with the mouse, she'd have trodden on him by now.