現在進行式

現在進行式的構成

任何動詞的現在進行式都是以兩個部分所構成——Be 動詞的現在式 + 主要動詞的現在分詞。

(現在分詞的結構為:動詞原型+ing,例如 talking、playing、moving、smiling)

肯定句
主詞 + Be 動詞 + 原型 + ing
She is talking.
否定句
Subject + Be 動詞 + not + 原型 + ing
She is not (isn't) talking.
疑問句
Be 動詞  + 主詞 + 原型 + ing
Is she talking?

舉例:TO GO 用於現在進行式

肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I am going. I am not going. Am I going?
You are going. You aren't going. Are you going?
He, she, it is going. He, she, it isn't going. Is he, she, it going?
We are going. We aren't going. Are we going?
You are going. You aren't going. Are you going?
They are going. They aren't going. Are they going?

註:也可使用否定形式的縮寫:I'm not going、you're not going、he's not going 等。

現在進行式的作用

就如所有英語中的時態一樣,說話者的態度與動作或事件發生的時間一樣重要。當某人使用了現在進行式,他們就是認為某件事未完成或不完整

使用現在進行式的情況:
  • 描述某個動作目前正在發生:You are using the Internet. You are studying English grammar.
  • 描述某個動作正在這段時間或趨勢發生:Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becoming vegetarian.
  • 描述某個未來的動作或事件,而這個動作或事件已經是規劃或準備好的:We're going on holiday tomorrow. I'm meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?
  • 描述一個暫時的事件或情況:He usually plays the drums, but he's playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but it's raining at the moment.
  • 用 always, forever, constantly 等副詞來描述和強調一個不斷反覆發生的動作:Harry and Sally are always arguing! You're constantly complaining about your mother-in-law!
要注意!有些動詞通常不會用在進行式。

通常不會用在進行式的動詞

以下的動詞一般用在簡單式,因為這些動詞指的是狀態,而不是動作或過程。

感覺 / 感知
  • to feel*
  • to hear
  • to see*
  • to smell
  • to taste
意見
  • to assume
  • to believe
  • to consider
  • to doubt
  • to feel (= to think)
  • to find (= to consider)
  • to suppose
  • to think*
心理狀態
  • to forget
  • to imagine
  • to know
  • to mean
  • to notice
  • to recognise
  • to remember
  • to understand
情感 / 慾望
  • to envy
  • to fear
  • to dislike
  • to hate
  • to hope
  • to like
  • to love
  • to mind
  • to prefer
  • to regret
  • to want
  • to wish
測量
  • to contain
  • to cost
  • to hold
  • to measure
  • to weigh
其他
  • to look(= to resemble)
  • to seem
  • to be(在多數情況)
  • to have(當它的意思是「to possess」的時候)*
例外情況

感知動詞 (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) 時常與 can 連用:I can see... 這些動詞也可以用在進行式,但意思上會有些不同。

  • This coat feels nice and warm.(你對外套品質的感覺)
  • John's feeling much better now(他的健康狀況正在改善)
  • She has three dogs and a cat.(擁有)
  • She's having supper.(她正在吃)
  • I can see Anthony in the garden(知覺)
  • I'm seeing Anthony later(我們正打算要碰面)