現在完成式

現在完成式的構成

任何動詞的現在完成式都是以兩個要素構成:依人稱使用正確的助動詞 to have(現在式)的型態,加上主要動詞的過去分詞。規則動詞的過去分詞為動詞原型 + ed,例如 played、arrived、looked。至於不規則動詞,請參考「動詞」頁面上的不規則動詞表

肯定句
主詞 to have 過去分詞
She has visited.
否定句
主詞 to have + not 過去分詞
She has not (hasn't) visited.
疑問句
to have 主詞 過去分詞
Has she visited?
否定型疑問句
to have + not 主詞 過去分詞
Hasn't she visited?
現在完成式,以 to walk 為例
肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I have walked. I haven't walked. Have I walked?
You have walked. You haven't walked. Have you walked?
He, she, it has walked. He, she, hasn't walked. Has he, she, it walked?
We have walked. We haven't walked. Have we walked?
You have walked. You haven't walked. Have you walked?
They have walked. They haven't walked. Have they walked?

現在完成式的作用

現在完成式是用來表明現在與過去的連結。動作的時間是在過去,並沒有一個具體的時間點。我們往往更强调結果,而非动作本身。

要留意!也許您的母語中也有相似的動詞時態,但意思不見得是一樣的。
現在完成式是用來描述:
  • 始於過去的動作或狀態,到目前仍持續著。I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= 而且到現在還是。)
  • 在一段時間內做過、但還沒有結束的動作。She has been to the cinema twice this week (= 而且這禮拜還沒過完。)
  • 在過去到現在之間的一段不明確的時間內重複發生的動作。We have visited Portugal several times.
  • 在不久前完成的動作,以「just」來表達。I have just finished my work.
  • 發生時間並不重要的動作。He has read 'War and Peace'. (= 閱讀的結果很重要)

注意:如果想要針對何時、何地、何人給予或詢問細節,我們會用過去簡單式。關於這方面可以參考這篇文章,了解如何在現在完成式和過去簡單式之間做選擇

始於過去且目前持續在做的動作
  • They haven't lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?
當提及的時間點還沒結束
  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven't seen her today.
在過去到現在之間不具體的時間範圍內重複做的動作
  • They have seen that film six times
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
剛結束的動作(加 just)
  • Have you just finished work?
  • I have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?
當動作的確切時間並不重要或未知時
  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
  • She's studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

進一步了解如何在現在完成式中使用 ever、never、already 和 yet,以及在現在完成式中使用 for 和 since