第二類條件句

型態

在第二類條件句中,if 子句使用的時態是過去簡單式,而主要子句的時態是現在條件式或現在進行條件式

if 子句(條件/情況) 主要子句(結果)
if + 過去簡單式 現在條件式或現在進行條件式
If this thing happened that thing would happen.

就如所有條件句,子句的順序並沒有硬性規定。當您要改變子句的順序時,必須重新安排代名詞的位置,以及調整標點符號,但意思基本上是一樣的。

舉例
  • If it rained, you would get wet.
  • You would get wet if it rained.
  • If you went to bed earlier you wouldn't be so tired.
  • You wouldn't be so tired if you went to bed earlier.
  • If she fell, she would hurt herself.
  • She would hurt herself if she fell.

作用

第二類條件句論及不可能或假設性的情況,以及該情況可能會有的結果,這類句子並非根據實際情況。在第二條件句的時間指的是現在或任何時候,而情況是假設的

舉例
  • If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park.(但天氣太糟所以我們不能去)
  • If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken.(但我並不是皇后)
  • If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.
  • If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.

「if I were」是正確的,也很普遍;而「if I was」並不屬於條件句或虛擬語氣的用法。

舉例
  • If I were taller, I would buy this dress.
  • If I were 20, I would travel the world.
  • If I were you, I would give up smoking.
  • If I were a plant, I would love the rain.

在第二類條件句中,您也可以在主要子句用情態助動詞取代 would,以表達肯定程度、允諾或有關結果的建議。

舉例
  • We might buy a larger house if we had more money
  • He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
  • If he called me, I couldn't hear.

現在條件式

任何動詞的現在條件式都是以兩個要素組成:
would + 主要動詞不定詞(不帶有 to)

主詞 + would + 不定詞
He would go
They would stay
現在條件式,以 To Go 為例
肯定句 否定句 疑問句 否定疑問句
I would go I wouldn't go Would I go? Wouldn't I go?
You would go You wouldn't go Would you go? Wouldn't you go?
He would go He wouldn't go Would he go? Wouldn't he go?
She would go She wouldn't go Would she go? Wouldn't she go?
We would go We wouldn't go Would we go? Wouldn't we go?
They would go They wouldn't go Would they go? Wouldn't they go?