過去非真實條件句

在英語中,過去式有時會被用來論及一個不真實的情況。所以說,縱使動詞的時態是過去式,我們實際上講的是根本沒發生過的事。當我們講的是一個假設、隨時可能發生的情況,就會出現這樣的條件句,因此我們將這種過去式稱為「過去非真實條件句」。

「過去非真實條件句」會用在 if、supposing、if only、what if 等表達條件或假設的字詞後,還有表達願望的動詞 to wish 之後,以及 I'd rather 之類的字詞後。

表達條件的用詞

if、supposing、if only、what if 等措辭可以用來引導假設的條件或情況,並在後面接過去簡單式的句子,以表示引導的假設條件或情況是虛幻的。

舉例
  • Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love.
  • What if we painted the room yellow?
  • If you went to the movies, I would babysit.
  • If only I had more money, I could go to the movies too.

這些措辭也可以用來引導過去的假設情況,後面接過去完成式的句子。

舉例
  • If only I hadn't kissed the frog.
  • What if the elephant had stepped on my phone?
  • Supposing I had given that man my money.

祈望

當我們要談論不滿意、但無法改變的現況,就要把 to wish 這個動詞用在過去不真實條件句。

舉例
  • I wish I had more money.
  • She wishes she was beautiful.
  • We wish we could come to your party.

當我們想要談論過去不滿意的情況,或者後悔做過的事情,我們會在動詞 to wish 後面接過去完成式的句子。

舉例
  • I wish I hadn't said that.
  • He wishes he hadn't bought the car.
  • I wish I had taken that job in New York.

當我們想要談問不滿意的現況,並且表達我們希望某人可以改變某事,就要在動詞 to wish 後面接 would + 不定詞的句型。

舉例
  • I wish he would stop smoking.
  • I wish you would go away.
  • I wish you wouldn't squeeze the toothpaste from the middle!

用「I'd rather」和「it's time」來表達寧願

I'd rather 和 it's time 後面接的也是過去非真實條件句。動詞是過去式,但談論的情況是現在式。當我們想要表達自己希望某人做某件事,就要用 I'd rather + 過去式的句型。

舉例
  • I'd rather you went.
  • He'd rather you called the police.
  • I'd rather you didn't hunt elephants.

在這樣的句型中,重音的位置很重要;這樣才能清楚表達我們寧願的事物為何。

舉例
  • I'd rather you went.(而不是我)
  • I'd rather you went.(而不是留下)
  • He'd rather you called the police.(而不是我)
  • He'd rather you called the police.(而不是消防員)

同樣的,當我們想要表達現在該做某事,無論是對於自己本身還是對於他人,都是用 it's time + 過去式的句型。

舉例
  • It's time you paid that bill.
  • It's time I went home.
  • Don't you think it's time you had a haircut?